Intrinsic And Extrinsic Causes of Wrinkles: An Overview

Many factors cause wrinkle formation. They are generally classified as intrinsic causes and extrinsic causes: Intrinsic causes of wrinkle include: reactive oxygen species and free radicals – free radical theory of skin aging crosslinking of biomacromolecules by glycation by ROS/free … Continue reading

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Age-Related Morphological, Histological, Structural, And Molecular Changes In Skin Fibroblast In Vitro

The study of age-related changes in the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of isolated skin cell populations in culture has expanded and provide the basis for the understanding of the fundamental aspects of skin aging. In the field of molecular … Continue reading

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Mechanism of UV Induced ROS Generation: Photosensitization

The primary mechanism of UV induced skin aging is the production and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS/free radicals is one of the main causes of chronologic and photo skin aging. ROS damages and oxidizes biomacromolecules and cellular components. … Continue reading

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The Effect of UV-Induced Gene Activation On Photo Skin Aging

The primary mechanism of UV-induced skin aging is mediated by the generation and accumulation of free radicals including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS or free radicals not only can damage proteins, DNA, cellular membrane and … Continue reading

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Mechanism of UV Induced ROS Generation: NADPH Oxidase Activation

The primary mechanism of UV induced skin aging is the production and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS/free radicals is one of the main causes of chronologic and photo skin aging . ROS exerts aging effect via damaging and … Continue reading

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The Nonenzymatic Antioxidant Systems In Aging Skin

The free radical theory of aging established the role of oxidative stress as one of the main causes of aging and skin aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) – produced as byproduct of oxidative energy metabolism and induced by external factors … Continue reading

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ROS and UV Induced Mitochondria DNA Mutation and Common Deletion In Skin

Mitochondria are cellular organelles that produce energy (ATP) by consuming oxygen. In the chronological aging process, mitochondria not only produce less ATP, but they also increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of aerobic metabolism, particularly during … Continue reading

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NF-kB and AP-1 Molecular Signaling Mechanisms of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Skin Aging

The molecular signaling pathways associated with skin aging is most and initially studied in the photo skin aging. Numerous researches published combined the pieces of discovery into an general overview picture about what occurred molecularly in photo skin aging. It … Continue reading

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AP-1 Signaling Activates MMP in Chronological and Photo Skin Aging

The activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor belonging to the c-Fos, c-Jun, ATF and JDP families. It regulates and activates genes in response to a variety of stimuli including stress, pathogen infections, cytokines, growth factors. AP-1 thereby … Continue reading

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Extracellular Matrix Protein 1 (ECM1) Is Decreased By Chronological Aging and Increased Upon UV Exposure

Extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein containing motifs with cysteine pattern as the binding sites with other matrix protein or molecules in skin. ECM1 consists of four binding domains for interacting with different ECM molecules ECM1 … Continue reading

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