Intrinsic And Extrinsic Causes of Wrinkles: An Overview

Many factors cause wrinkle formation. They are generally classified as intrinsic causes and extrinsic causes: Intrinsic causes of wrinkle include: reactive oxygen species and free radicals – free radical theory of skin aging crosslinking of biomacromolecules by glycation by ROS/free … Continue reading

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ROS and UV Induced Mitochondria DNA Mutation and Common Deletion In Skin

Mitochondria are cellular organelles that produce energy (ATP) by consuming oxygen. In the chronological aging process, mitochondria not only produce less ATP, but they also increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of aerobic metabolism, particularly during … Continue reading

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Telomere Length of the Skin in Association with Chronological Aging and Photoaging

The cellular telomere length has been the predictor of life span according to the telomere theory of aging. Telomere is the region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from … Continue reading

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Dermatological Implications of Facial Bone Aging

Wrinkles and fine lines are the most evident manifestation of facial aging. It is not just the skin structural and facial muscles change that contribute to the formation of wrinkle such as loss of elasticity and volume. Changes in bone … Continue reading

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Skin Stem Cell And Skin Aging

The epidermis is a stratified squamous epithelium, composed of proliferating basal and differentiated suprabasal keratinocytes which acts as the body’s natural barrier to infection. The epidermis and skin appendages need to be renewed constantly to protect the body from dehydration, … Continue reading

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Inflammaging In Skin

Without inflammation, infections would go unchecked and wounds would not heal; however, the process of inflammation and repair can also be harmful. As we age, the immune system becomes less effective and its capacity to manage the inflammatory activity is … Continue reading

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Why Antioxidants Also Provide Anti-Inflammatory Protection For The Skin?

Antioxidants are a group of important ingredients for anti-aging skin care because of their ability to neutralize the free radical damage of cells and macromolecules (protein, DNA, lipids). – Free radical damage was one of the first processes associated with … Continue reading

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