Intrinsic And Extrinsic Causes of Wrinkles: An Overview

Many factors cause wrinkle formation. They are generally classified as intrinsic causes and extrinsic causes:

Intrinsic causes of wrinkle include:

  • reactive oxygen species and free radicals – free radical theory of skin aging
  • crosslinking of biomacromolecules
    • by glycation
    • by ROS/free radicals
  • collagen and elastin fiber damage
  • DNA damage and mutation
    • nuclear DNA damage
    • mitochondria DNA damage
  • mitochondria damage and reduced cellular energy production
  • genetics
  • telomere length shortening and cellular senescence
  • chronic inflammaging
  • reduced dermal stem cell function and activity – the stem cell theory of skin aging
  • dehydration
    • extracellular matrix ground substance – decreased proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan
    • epidermal-dermal junction structural changes – reduced barrier function
  • reduced epidermal cell renewal and skin homeostasis functionality
  • decreased functionality of the natural antioxidant system of the skin
  • hormone theory of skin aging
  • mechanical causes
    • facial muscle movement
    • gravity
  • facial bone aging

Extrinsic causes of wrinkle include:

  • sun exposure
  • smoking
  • diet (deficiency in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory diet)
  • pollutions
  • stress
  • drug
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